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Scientific Research Supporting ETT®

Updated: Jul 17, 2023



Massive scientific research supports the concept that attachment patterns developed with caregivers in early life are the basis for patterns of emotional regulation and relationship patterns. Recognizing and adapting to each person's attachment pattern optimizes interpersonal interaction. (Bowlby, J., 1982; Bietman, B.D. Viamontes, G.I., Soth, A.M. and Nittler, J., 2006; Brisch, K.H., 2002; Marnig, M., 2002; Ainsworth, M.D.S., 1985; Field, T., 1985; Hagan, C. and Shaver, P., 1987.)


Further scientific research that supports ETT can be found in the three books authored by Steven Vazquez, Ph.D., LPC-S, LMFT:

-Emotional Transformation Therapy

-Accelerated Ecological Therapy

-Spiritually Transformative Psychotherapy

In addition, Dr. Vazquez has written the following published professional articles:

- "Illuminating the Windows of the Soul: Facilitating Psychotherapy with Eye Movements and Strobic Colored Light Stimulation" B. Breiling and S. R. Vasquez, Ph.D., published in Bridges, ISSSEEM Magazine, Volume 8, Number 2, Summer 1997.

- "Ethical Issues in Energy Medicine Caregiving" S. R. Vazquez, Ph.D., published in Bridges, ISSSEEM Magazine, Volume 12, Number 4, Winter 2001, pp 15-18.

- "The New Light Psychotherapy for S.A.D." published in Annals of the American Psychotherapy Assn. in Fall 2004.

- "Peripheral Light Stimulation for Rapid Emotional, Somatic and Transpersonal Regulation" published in Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 16(3).

- "Color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.00); font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: auto; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration: none; margin: 0in; font-size: medium; font-family: "Times New Roman", serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 1.2;">- "A New Paradigm for Eye Movement Psychotherapy" published in Annals of the American Psychotherapy Assn. in Winter, 2009, 12(4).

- "A New Paradigm for PTSD Treatment: Emotional Transformation Therapy" published in American Psychotherapy Assn. in Summer 2005.

-"An End to Addictions?: A New Paradigm" published in American Psychotherapy Assn. in Fall 2016.

-"The New Process Color Theory" published in Journal of Optometric Phototherapy, March 2005.

-There is one scientific study on ETT published during the early development of ETT in 1996 (Dearing, B.G. and Singg, S., 1996)

-There are two ongoing scientific research studies about ETT in progress as of June, 2019.

ETT is an experiential form of therapy, which means it works best during emotional experience. ETT principles are supported by a vast amount of scientific research. The emotional neural networks in the brain tend to deconsolidate during emotional experience, which opens them to change. Then new learning consolidates their networks to produce long-term change.

-Color perceptions have been scientifically shown to affect and change emotional states and emotional states can change color perceptions. (Elliot, A.J. and Maier, 2014; Kaya, N. and Eps. 2004; Lee, J.L, Andrade, 2014; Smajic, A., Merrit, S., Bannister, C., and Blinebry, A., 2014; Sommer and Sommer, 2015; Stefanucci, J.K., Gagno K.T., and Lessard, D.A., 2011; Todd, G.A., 1973; Valdez, P. and Mehrabin, A., 1994; Wirtz- Justice, A., Benedetti, and Terman, M., 2013)

-Color perception has been shown through scientific research to affect and change thoughts and the content of thought has been shown to alter color perception. (Collins, J.A. and Olson, I.R., 2014; Lehri, S., Gerstmyer, K., Jacolb, J.H., Frieling, H., Henkel, A.W., Meyer, R., et al, 2007; McPherson, F., 2012; Meachann, M., 2015; Meier, B.P., Robinson, M.D., Crawford, L.E. and Ahivers, W.J., 2007; Stokers, D., 2013; Zeimbekis, J., 2013)

-Color perception has been scientifically shown to influence language and verbal expression and language has been shown to alter color perception. (Deutsher, G., 2011; Drivonikon, G.V., Kay, P., Egler, T., Ivry, R.B., Gilbert, A.L., Franklin, A., and Daview, I.R.L., 2007; Gilbert, A.L, Regier, T., Kay, P., and Ivry, R.B., 2006; Heutlig, F., and Altman, G.T., 2011; Lupyan, G., 2013; Vandewalle, G., Schwartz, S., Grandjean, D., Walllaume, C., Balteau, E., Deguelde, C., Schabus, M., Phillips, C., Luxen, A., Dijk, D.J. and Margret, P., 2010)

-Color has been shown scientifically to directly affect memory, especially to elicit recall, and memory can impact color perception. (Mitterer, H., Musselor, J. and Majid, A. 2009; Witzel, C. and Gegenfurter, K.R., 2013)


Scientific research has shown that the therapeutic bond is the most important factor in therapy. (Duncan, B., Miller, S., and Sparks, J., 2000). Research has also shown that types of therapies that are most effective are those that are custom tailored to each individual (Krebs, P.M., Narcross, J.C. and Prochaska, D., 2011). Interpersonal bonding is central to ETT® and the use of four ETT® modalities provides individualization.

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